PTSD in Lebanese children
The following is a sample Paper 3 that looks at a case study. Below you will first find the stimulus piece, followed by the static questions. A copy of the mock paper is included to give students as an in-class assessment.
Potential answers are included in the hidden boxes below.
Macksoud & Aber (1996) carried out a case study on children in a Lebanese neighbourhood following the end of the Lebanese civil war. The researchers wanted to see how different types of trauma experienced during the war affects the development of children.
A sample of 224 Lebanese children (10–16 years old) was interviewed. The sample was drawn from three communities that had witnessed high levels of violence during the war. To obtain participants, an ad was put into the local newspaper. The ad promised that all participants would have a psychological examination and receive treatment advice. The interviews used standardized questions to measure the children’s level of war exposure, mental health symptoms and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In addition, parents were interviewed to employ data triangulation. In addition, the researchers observed the children in different social situations including interactions at school, on the playground, and at home with their families.
The number and type of the children's war traumas varied with their age, gender, father's occupational status and mother's educational level.
Results indicated that on average a Lebanese child had experienced five to six different types of war related traumatic events during his or her lifetime, and some events were experienced several times. Exposure to shelling or combat, displacement, extreme poverty and witnessing violent acts were the most common traumatic experiences faced by the children. As predicted, the number of war traumas experienced by a child was positively related to PTSD symptoms. In addition, the type of trauma may also affect their problem-solving skills, ability to adapt, or general mental health. For example, children who lost a family member became victims of violent acts, witnessed violent acts, and/or were exposed to shelling or combat exhibited more PTSD symptoms. Children who were separated from parents reported more depressive symptoms. Children who were displaced from their homes demonstrated more concern for their futures. Lastly, children who were separated from parents and who witnessed violent acts, in fact, showed more pro-social behavior.
1a. Identify the method used and outline two characteristics of the method.
1b. Describe the sampling method used in the study.
1c. Suggest an alternative or additional research method giving one reason for your choice.
2. Describe the ethical considerations that were applied in the study and explain if further ethical considerations could be applied.
3. Discuss how the researcher may avoid bias in this study.